It seems that Python and Java are perfect Programming languages, as a matter of fact, they both are capable of getting the tasks done, however, there are few differences which could help you with your decision. Let's start with explaining each in brief and then comparing them with each other.
Java is a programming language, first released by Sun Microsystems in 1995 and later acquired by Oracle Corporation. From laptops to datacenters, game consoles to scientific supercomputers, cell phones to the Internet, Java has managed to rule!
It is said to be one of the fastest, secure, and reliable programming languages, used by most of the top organizations to build their projects.
Python is an interpreted object-oriented general-purpose, high-level programming language. Designed by Guido van Rossum in 1991, Python was later developed by Python Software Foundation.
Python is used for various purposes such as developing, cloud computing, scripting, software testing, etc.
JAVA vs. Python
Lines of codes
Developers are required to write longer lines of code to accomplish common programming tasks in Java. They need to invest additional time to organize, maintain and update the Java codebase. Java follows very strict syntax rules and the program won’t run if your code has any error.
But in the case of Python, it enables the developers to express concepts in just a few lines of code. It becomes easier for developers to maintain and update the codebase because Python emphasizes reusable and readable code generation.
Java being a compiled language is generally faster and more efficient than Python. The performance of Java programs improves with Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler by compiling bytecode into native machine code. The compiled code si directly called by Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Since the code is not interpreted, compiling does not require processor time and memory usage, This makes JAVA programming faster as compared to Python.
Python being an interpreted language has simpler, more concise syntax as compared to Java. It takes only few lines to perform tasks. Python is an interpreted language that slows down Python programs during the runtime. Also while determining the variable type that occurs during runtime increases the workload of the interpreter- another reason for Python being slow. It also needs to be mentioned that developers can speed up the execution of Python code with the use of PyPy, CPython, or Cython.
Programmers can easily create portable cross-platform applications suing Java. These applications can run on any device on which Java virtual machine (JVM) is running. The developers can run Java applications on various devices without requiring any specialized tools and compilers as JVM is installed on many devices.
While, for Python developers will require to convert the code written in Python into code understandable by the specific operating system using a Python compiler.
Mobile app development
Java is also being widely used for app development for the Android. Several standard Java libraries are included in the the Android SDK. Android apps can easily be created by taking advantage of networking, data structure, graphics, and math libraries. To speed up Android app development developers can even avail several tools and frameworks.
Python development cannot be used for mobile app development directly and exclusively. Additional frameworks and tools are required to use Python for mobile app development. Many programmers prefer developing mobile apps with Java to save both time and effort.
It’s really important to have huge community support for a language when it comes to development. You can build tools and allow others to use that. You can leverage the programmer’s community to get the solution or advice for coding-related problems or issues . Java and Python both enjoy great community support. You will encounter tons of resources, forums, and books to help with your learning of both of the languages. You can also get huge support from GitHub and StackOverflow.
Java and Python are the 2nd and 3rd most popular languages respectively for the fourth year in a row as per theGitHub’s annual Octobers report,
According per the latest usage statistics posted on a popular Technology Survey site, Java is being used by 3.0% of websites as a server-side programming language, whereas only 0.2% of websites use Python. However, all the recent reports have highlighted that the usage and popularity of Python are growing drastically compared to Java where Java usage is coming down year on year.
According to Tiobe Index, Java has been given more preference with 16.61% and Python has managed to grab the 3rd spot with 9.874?sed on performance, coding capabilities, and popularity.
Jobs in the market
Python and Java are the most popular languages in the world, there’s a high demand for both developers in India. Whereas the supply is low. Job portals like Indeed and Naukri offer around 20,000 to 50,000 job listings for Python and Java developers individually.
So it is absolutely dependent on your priority. Go with Python if your top priority is development speed; if your top priority is stability over all else you can go with Java.
Where Java is better suited to handle complex tasks, Python is clearer, easier, and simpler—to read, write, and modify.
If Python has some advantages then it also has some disadvantages and the same goes for Java.
Without some kind of clarity, it is very difficult to tell what the future of programming has in store for us.
Maybe Python will be able to crush Java in the upcoming future or maybe Python itself gets left behind, forgotten in the wake of some newer programming language, who knows!
But for now, It’s safe to say that both languages are not going anywhere anytime soon.